Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways in the lungs of children and adults.
The patient usually complains of shortness of breath, chest tightness and coughing with wheezing.
Goals of treatment are effective symptom control with minimal or no exacerbations, minimal or no nocturnal and daytime symptoms, no limitations on activities, minimal or no need for reliever treatment, and minimal adverse effects of medication.
The immediate reduction of cigarette nicotine content results in greater improvements in levels of smoke exposure biomarkers than gradual reduction, though withdrawal symptoms are stronger, according to a recent study.
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a noninvasive ventilation, may help improve respiratory rate and reduce mortality in children with respiratory distress, particularly in those younger than 1 year, a recent study showed. CPAP intervention was initiated by nurses with minimal physician supervision in the study, supporting the use of noninvasive ventilation in low-resource settings where laboratory diagnostic tests are not readily available.