Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways in the lungs of children and adults.
The patient usually complains of shortness of breath, chest tightness and coughing with wheezing.
A diagnosis of asthma in young children is more likely if they have
symptom patterns, presence of risk factors for development of asthma and
therapeutic response to controller treatment.
Goals of treatment are effective symptom control with minimal or no
exacerbations, minimal or no nocturnal and daytime symptoms, no
limitations on activities, minimal or no need for reliever treatment,
and minimal adverse effects of medication.
Extremely premature neonates with cumulative inspired oxygen exposure and frequent intermittent hypoxaemia events during the first 3 days of age are at increased risk of symptomatic childhood wheezing requiring prescription asthma medications, reports a study.
Serum levels of biopterin correlate with the state of the asthma control at follow-up visit in children with stable disease, as shown in a recent study. Therefore, monitoring biopterin levels represent an attractive strategy to assess disease control status and to adjust treatment intensity more precisely.
In children with moderate or severe asthma exacerbations, the presence of respiratory pathogens such as respiratory syncytial virus, influenza and parainfluenza appears to increase the risk of treatment failure, a study reports.
Dupilumab, the fully human anti-interleukin-4 receptor α monoclonal antibody indicated for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, appeared to improve lung function, reduce exacerbations, and decrease oral corticosteroid use in individuals with moderate-to-severe asthma, according to two phase III trials presented at ATS 2018.
Frequent use of antibiotics during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, with the risk varies by timing and number of antibiotic courses used during pregnancy, according to a study presented at ATS 2018.
Adding tiotropium to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) appeared safe and well tolerated in preschool children with persistent asthmatic symptoms, reveals an exploratory, regulatory trial—suggesting that tiotropium may be a complementary strategy for managing this young population for whom treatment options are scarce.
A temporary increased dose of inhaled glucocorticoids did not reduce the rate of exacerbations in children with mild-to-moderate asthma, according to a study presented at the 2018 AAAAI/WAO congress held in Orlando, Florida, US.
Use of mirabegron in the treatment of men with overactive bladder (OAB) appears to effectively alleviate urgency and storage symptoms, but not reduce the frequency of micturition episodes, according to data from the MIRACLE study.
A recent study has shown that the short-term efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is superior to entecavir (ETV) for the treatment of acute-on-chronic-liver failure (ACLF) due to reactivation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB).