asthma%20(pediatric)
ASTHMA (PEDIATRIC)

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways in the lungs of children and adults.
The patient usually complains of shortness of breath, chest tightness and coughing with wheezing.

A diagnosis of asthma in young children is more likely if they have symptom patterns, presence of risk factors for development of asthma and therapeutic response to controller treatment.
Goals of treatment are effective symptom control with minimal or no exacerbations, minimal or no nocturnal and daytime symptoms, no limitations on activities, minimal or no need for reliever treatment, and minimal adverse effects of medication.

Differential Diagnosis

Upper Airway Diseases

  • Allergic rhinitis & chronic rhinosinusitis

Large-airway Obstruction

  • Foreign body obstruction of trachea or bronchus
  • Vocal cord dysfunction
  • Vascular rings or laryngeal webs
  • Laryngotracheomalacia, tracheal stenosis or bronchostenosis
  • Enlarged lymph nodes or tumor

Small-airway Obstruction

  • Bronchiolitis (viral or obliterative)
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
  • Congenital heart disease

Other Causes

  • Recurrent viral lower respiratory tract infection
  • Tuberculosis
  • Aspiration due to dysfunction in swallowing mechanism or gastroesophageal reflux
  • Immune deficiency
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