Antiretroviral therapy is recommended for all HIV-infected individuals regardless of CD4 count to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection.
Goals of antiretroviral treatment are suppression of viral load for maximum possible duration, restore and preserve immunologic function, reduce HIV-related morbidity and mortality and prevent HIV transmission.
Urgent initiation of antiretroviral treatment is recommended in the following individuals: Pregnant women, patients with HIV with coinfections (HBV, HCV, active tuberculosis), AIDS-defining illness, HIV-associated nephropathy, low CD4 counts, acute opportunistic infections and HIV HBV with evidence of chronic liver disease.
Among people living with HIV on active antiretroviral therapy (ART), coinfection with the hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) viruses does not seem to significantly worsen immunologic and virologic response to treatment, a recent study has found.
Among people living with HIV (PLHIV), young women and patients with active syphilis appeared to be at an elevated risk of contracting COVID-19, according to a cross-sectional study presented at HIV Glasgow 2022.
People living with HIV (PLHIV) who initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB), particularly in the first 3 months after starting ART, according to a study presented at HIV Glasgow 2022.
Among pregnant individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-1 infection, those on dolutegravir had the greatest viral suppression rates at delivery, a recent US-based observational study showed. However, birth outcomes generally did not differ between dolutegravir recipients and those on various other ART regimens.
Adult people with HIV-1 (PLHIV) who switched to bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (B/F/TAF) after initially taking dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine (DTG/ABC/3TC) or DTG+F/TAF show a consistently high virologic suppression and have few discontinuations over 5 years of follow-up, according to a study presented at the HIV Glasgow 2022 Congress.
Switching to the once-a-day, fixed-dose pill that contains bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir (BIC/FTC/TAF) appears to be safe and effective in older HIV patients and in people living with HIV (PLHIV) with pretreatment or treatment-acquired resistance, in addition to yielding metabolic benefits, according to studies presented at HIV Glasgow 2022.
Adults with a high baseline HIV-1 RNA or low CD4 count may benefit from initial treatment with bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (B/F/TAF), which has been shown to be safe and efficacious over 5 years of follow-up in a study presented at the ID Week 2022 Virtual Conference.
Doxycycline, taken with 72 hours of unprotected sex, could prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men who have sex with men (MSM) or transgender women (TGW) who are either living with HIV (PLHIV) or are receiving pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), according to a study presented at AIDS 2022.
The rising incidence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria has become a serious health threat and a major challenge for intensivists. Against a backdrop of high patient mortality and risk factors for infection in intensive care units (ICU), early adequate therapy is of paramount importance. At a recent Pfizer-sponsored symposium, Dr Asok Kurup, Infectious Disease Physician, Singapore presented the implications of MDR gram-negative infections in critically ill patients in Asia, while Dr Kenneth Chan, Respiratory Physician and Intensivist, Singapore highlighted the role of ceftazidime-avibactam (Zavicefta) and shared published real-world data on ceftazidime-avibactam.
A large retrospective study from the US, presented at IDWeek 2021, has shown that the Abbott ID NOW rapid molecular COVID-19 assay is highly sensitive and specific at detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection in a paediatric population.