Treatment Guideline Chart
Spondyloarthritis refers to a group of chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases characterized by spinal & joint oligoarthritis, enthesitis, and sometimes mucocutaneous, ocular and/or cardiac manifestations.
Ankylosing spondylitis is a prototype of spondyloarthritis, particularly of the axial form.
Diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is definite if any of the radiological criterion is associated with at least one clinical criterion.

Ankylosing%20spondylitis Treatment

Surgical Intervention

  • Associated pre- and postoperative anesthetic precautions need to be considered
  • Collaboration with orthopedic surgeon to consider the following:
    • Total hip arthroplasty in ankylosing spondylitis AS patients with refractory pain/disability, structural damage as seen in radiographs
    • Spinal corrective osteotomy in AS patients with severe disabling deformity (eg severe kyphosis)
  • Recommend consultation with spinal surgeon in AS patients with acute vertebral fracture
  • Physiotherapy, breathing exercises and early mobilization need to be initiated early to reduce the risk for respiratory complications
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