Spondyloarthritis refers to a group of inflammatory diseases characterized by spinal & joint oligoarthritis, enthesitis, and sometimes mucocutaneous, ocular and/or cardiac manifestations.
Ankylosing spondylitis is a prototype of spondyloarthritis, particularly of the axial form.
Diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is definite if any of the radiological criterion (grade≥2 bilateral sacroiliitis or grade ≥3 unilateral sacroiliitis) is associated with at least one of the clinical criterion (low back pain & stiffness for >3 months that improves with exercise but not relieved by rest, limitation of motion of the lumbar spine in the sagittal and frontal planes, limitation of chest expansion relative to normal values correlated for age and gender.
Follow-up schedule depends on the patient’s disease activity
Annual clinic visits is recommended for patients with stable ankylosing spondylitis
At least 1 assessment tool should be used during clinic visits, depending on the disease activity
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein monitoring at regular intervals is recommended
Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning of the spine may be considered for patients at high risk for osteoporosis or osteopenia
Referral to an ophthalmologist is recommended for ankylosing spondylitis patients with acute iritis
For patients with stable ankylosing spondylitis given combination therapy with NSAIDs and tumor necrosis factor inhibitor upon diagnosis, patients may continue using tumor necrosis factor inhibitor alone as maintenance therapy
Year 6 and 7 cumulative data from the Mirena Extension Trial suggest that the efficacy and safety of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) as a contraceptive method is maintained over this time frame.
In a webinar held on 27 March 2021, paediatric
endocrinology nurses Karen Blair,
Kate Davies, and Siti Zarina Yaakop shared
insights and clinical experience based
on their frontline roles in caring for patients
with central precocious puberty (CPP)
and supporting their family members.