Spondyloarthritis refers to a group of inflammatory diseases characterized by spinal & joint oligoarthritis, enthesitis, and sometimes mucocutaneous, ocular and/or cardiac manifestations.
Ankylosing spondylitis is a prototype of spondyloarthritis, particularly of the axial form.
Diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is definite if any of the radiological criterion (grade≥2 bilateral sacroiliitis or grade ≥3 unilateral sacroiliitis) is associated with at least one of the clinical criterion (low back pain & stiffness for >3 months that improves with exercise but not relieved by rest, limitation of motion of the lumbar spine in the sagittal and frontal planes, limitation of chest expansion relative to normal values correlated for age and gender.
The use of ixekizumab to selectively target interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-naïve patients with ankylosing spondylitis yields improvements in disease activity, health-related quality of life, day-to-day physical activity, and bone marrow oedema of the spine and sacroiliac joint, according to the results of the phase III COAST-V study.
Only a few sonographic enthesitis scoring instruments developed for spondyloarthritis (SpA) have been validated in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and none of them passed the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) filter in patients with PsA, according to a systematic review.