anemia%20-%20iron-deficiency%20(pediatric)
ANEMIA - IRON-DEFICIENCY (PEDIATRIC)

Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common nutritional deficiency in children & reportedly 3x more common than iron-deficiency anemia, but does not always develop into anemia.

Neonates & children may have delayed growth & development; adolescents may show decrements of learning such as behavioral abnormalities.

Iron-deficiency anemia is the most advanced stage of iron deficiency resulted from a protracted imbalance between iron intake & demand.

Characterized by low hemoglobin & hematocrit levels, reduction or depletion of iron stores, low serum iron levels & decreased transferrin saturation.

  1. Goddard AF, James MW, McIntyre AS, Scott BB; British Society of Gastroenterology. Guidelines for the management of iron deficiency anaemia. Gut. 2011 Oct;60(10):1309-1316. doi: 10.1136/gut.2010.228874. PMID: 21561874
  2. Hadi F. Iron supplementation and therapy for children: simple measures to achieve brighter generation. MIMS. http://staging.pubportal.mims.com/topic/iron-supplementation-and-therapy-for-children--simple-measures-to-achieve-brighter-generation?country=singapore&channel=paediatrics&topicGrouper=. Dec 2015.
  3. Baker RD, Greer FR; Committee on Nutrition American Academy of Pediatrics. Diagnosis and prevention of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children (0-3 years of age). Pediatrics. 2010 Nov;126(5):1040-1050. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2576. PMID: 20923825
  4. Lichtin A. Iron-deficiency anemia. First Consult. https://www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/medical_topic/21-s2.0-1014692. Oct 2012.
  5. Mahoney DH. Iron deficiency in infants and young children: Screening, prevention, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/iron-deficiency-in-infants-and-young-children-screening-prevention-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis. Jun 2016.
  6. National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Department of Health and Ageing, Australia. Nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand: including recommended dietary intakes. NHMRC. https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/n35.pdf. Sep 2005.
  7. National Institutes of Health. Iron: dietary supplement fact sheet. NIH. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Iron-HealthProfessional/#h2. Feb 2016.
  8. Santiago P. Ferrous versus ferric oral iron formulations for the treatment of iron deficiency: a clinical overview. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012 May;2012(846824). doi: 10.1100/2012/846824. PMID: 22654638
  9. Schrier S, Auerbach M. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia in adults. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-adults. Jul 2016.
  10. Short MW, Domagalski JE. Iron deficiency anemia: evaluation and management. Aust Fam Physician. 2013 Jan;87(2):98-104. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0115/p98.html. PMID: 23317073
  11. Vehapoglu A, Ozgurhan G, Demir AD, et al. Hematological indices for differential diagnosis of Beta thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia. Anemia. 2014;2014(576738). doi: 10.1155/2014/576738. PMID: 24818016
  12. World Health Organization. Guideline: Daily iron supplementation in infants and children. Geneva: World Health Organization Press; 2016.
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