anaphylaxis%20(pediatric)
ANAPHYLAXIS (PEDIATRIC)

Anaphylaxis is a serious generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction that is rapid in onset and potentially fatal.

Diagnosis can be made if it is acute in onset of minute to several hour duration that involves the skin, mucosal tissue or both plus having signs & symptoms either respiratory or cardiovascular compromise.

It involves immunological response with IgE, IgG or immune complexes. Non-immunological mechanisms are also involved and termed as nonallergic anaphylaxis that is relatively uncommon in children.

Protracted, severe anaphylaxis are reactions occurring up to 32 hours despite aggressive management.

 

Differential Diagnosis

  • Vasovagal (vasodepressor) reaction
    • Condition most commonly confused with anaphylaxis
    • Characterized by absence of bronchospasm and other breathing difficulties, bradycardia (although may occur in anaphylaxis), absence of urticaria
  • Septic or hypovolemic shock
  • Psychiatric disorders (vocal cord dysfunction syndrome, panic attacks)
  • Postprandial syndromes (eg scombroid poisoning)
  • Hereditary angioedema
  • Asthma exacerbation
  • Foreign body aspiration
  • Trauma, child abuse
  • Other cardiovascular or respiratory events
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