Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by impairment of multiple higher cortical functions that include memory, orientation, thinking, comprehension, calculation, capacity for learning, language, judgment, executive function and visuo-spatial function. It is usually accompanied or preceded by deterioration in emotional control, social behavior or motivation.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Sporadic cases usually present after >60 year while familial types are rare and present in <60 year of age (early-onset dementia).
Short-term memory loss is the most common early symptom. Other spheres of cognitive impairment manifest after several years.
Most of older adults in Singapore maintain close relationships with family and/or relative and connect less with friends and neighbours, as reported in a recent study. However, having a larger social support network confers greater protection against the risk of developing dementia as compared with being in the family-dependent social support network type. Meanwhile, there is no significant association between social support network typology and depression.
Concussion is associated with a substantial long-term risk of dementia in older adults, but the risk can be reduced modestly with the use of statins, a large population-based double cohort study has shown.
Clinically diagnosed depression does not contribute to an increased risk of mortality in patients with dementia, a study has found. Moreover, survival is better in subgroups of patients with Asian ethnicity and those who are married.
The synthetic cannabinoid nabilone significantly improves noncognitive symptoms, in particular agitation, in people with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggests a small randomized controlled trial.
Use of methylphenidate results in improved apathy among community-dwelling veterans with mild Alzheimer’s disease, reports a recent study. In addition, methylphenidate improves cognition, functional status, caregiver burden, Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) scores and depression.
Exposure to corticosteroids in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) appears to contribute to increased risks of cataract, diabetes and bone fractures, a study has found. Notably, the fracture risk is elevated at low doses, while the risk of adverse events overall is dose-dependent and is reversible.
In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD), rivaroxaban monotherapy is noninferior to combination treatment with an antiplatelet therapy in terms of cutting the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, according to data from the AFIRE trial.
Many patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in Thailand use anticoagulants, but the uptake of nonvitamin-K oral anticoagulants remains suboptimal despite showing an upward trend, according to data from the COOL-AF registry presented at the European Society of Cardioloy (ESC) Asia Congress 2019 with APSC and AFC.