Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by impairment of multiple higher cortical functions that include memory, orientation, thinking, comprehension, calculation, capacity for learning, language, judgment, executive function and visuo-spatial function. It is usually accompanied or preceded by deterioration in emotional control, social behavior or motivation.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Sporadic cases usually present after >60 year while familial types are rare and present in <60 year of age (early-onset dementia).
Short-term memory loss is the most common early symptom. Other spheres of cognitive impairment manifest after several years.
The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram holds promise in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease, reducing amyloid-β-42 levels in cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue in older adults with normal cognitive function, according to recent evidence.
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) or anxiety symptoms in older individuals are independently associated with an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, a recent study has shown.
A multinutrient intervention has successfully reduced decline in cognition, function, brain atrophy, and disease progression in patients with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (AD) over 3 years, results of the LipiDiDiet clinical trial have shown. Such benefits tend to increase with early and long-term intervention.
In the vulnerable old individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D), metformin is neuroprotective, with a recent study reporting that the drug reduces the speed of cognitive decline and staves off the risk of developing dementia.
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) may be associated with a reduced risk of dementia, according to a systematic review and network meta-analysis conducted by researchers from the Netherlands.
A new blood test for plasma P-tau217* accurately differentiates Alzheimer's disease (AD) from other neurodegenerative diseases — showing promise as a blood-based biomarker for early detection of AD, according to a study presented at the AAIC 2020 Meeting.
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa,
08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.