Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by impairment of multiple higher cortical functions that include memory, orientation, thinking, comprehension, calculation, capacity for learning, language, judgment, executive function and visuo-spatial function. It is usually accompanied or preceded by deterioration in emotional control, social behavior or motivation.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Sporadic cases usually present after >60 year while familial types are rare and present in <60 year of age (early-onset dementia).
Short-term memory loss is the most common early symptom. Other spheres of cognitive impairment manifest after several years.
Individuals with hearing difficulties that interfere with daily activities, as reported by their partners or children, appear to have an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia, according to a recent study.
An active lifestyle, regardless of vascular risk, may delay the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by slowing down cognitive decline and neurodegeneration, according to a study presented at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference (AAIC 2019).
Individuals living within 50 metres of high-voltage overhead power lines tend to have heightened risk of Alzheimer’s dementia or Parkinson’s disease compared with those residing at >600 metres, suggesting that exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields may contribute to an increase in the risk of these neurodegenerative diseases, a study reports.
Individuals who identify as sexual or gender minorities (SGM) appear to be at a higher risk of experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD) than individuals who identify as cisgender and heterosexual, according to a study presented at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference (AAIC 2019).
The use of sleep medications may be associated with the risk of dementia or Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in older adults, according to two studies presented at the recent Alzheimer’s Association International Conference (AAIC 2019).
Continuing education appears to be beneficial in the prevention of mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s-type dementia, with the results of a meta-analysis showing that engaging structured learning activities offered by educational institutions helps increase cognitive reserve.
Biomarkers in the blood may present a new opportunity for developing a simple, noninvasive, and inexpensive screening test for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), according to studies presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference (AAIC) 2019.
Sex-specific differences in the way brain regions are connected may influence how tau propagates through the brain and thus, differences in the risk of Alzheimer’s disease between men and women; while participating in the workforce may help stave cognitive decline in women, suggest studies presented at AAIC 2019.
High intake of red meat during midlife was associated with a greater risk of cognitive impairment later in life among Chinese adults, according to data from approximately 20 years of follow-up of the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS) cohort.
A target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level of <70 mg/dL appeared to reduce the risk of major cardiovascular (CV) events* following an atherosclerotic ischaemic stroke, according to results of the Treat Stroke to Target trial.
Associate Professor Reshma A Merchant, Head & Senior Consultant of the Division of Geriatric Medicine at the National University Hospital, Singapore, speaks with Audrey Abella to discuss the challenges associated with dementia, its impact on the ageing population, and how this condition can be best managed in primary care.