Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by impairment of multiple higher cortical functions that include memory, orientation, thinking, comprehension, calculation, capacity for learning, language, judgment, executive function and visuo-spatial function. It is usually accompanied or preceded by deterioration in emotional control, social behavior or motivation.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Sporadic cases usually present after >60 year while familial types are rare and present in <60 year of age (early-onset dementia).
Short-term memory loss is the most common early symptom. Other spheres of cognitive impairment manifest after several years.
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) may be associated with a reduced risk of dementia, according to a systematic review and network meta-analysis conducted by researchers from the Netherlands.
A new blood test for plasma P-tau217* accurately differentiates Alzheimer's disease (AD) from other neurodegenerative diseases — showing promise as a blood-based biomarker for early detection of AD, according to a study presented at the AAIC 2020 Meeting.
Individuals with late-onset epilepsy appear to exhibit faster declines in global cognition, verbal memory, executive function, and word fluency over time compared with those who do not have the neurological disorder, and some of these declines occur prior to the index seizure, a study has found.
In its 2020 update, the Lancet Commission on dementia prevention, intervention, and care has added excessive alcohol consumption, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and air pollution to the nine potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia modelled in 2017, namely, less education, hypertension, hearing impairment, smoking, obesity, depression, physical inactivity, diabetes, and low social contact.
Observational studies have reported that long-term use of anticholinergic drugs carries an increased hazard of developing dementia or cognitive decline, but no causal link can be inferred due to the nature of the studies and considerable risk of bias, according to a meta-analysis.
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have more than a twofold risk of developing dementia, according to a study, implicating gut–brain axis and chronic inflammation in progressive neurocognitive degeneration.
Despite an extensive literature on the possible mechanisms involved in gut microbiota modulation and the pathophysiology of dementia, current evidence does not support clinical application of supplementation with probiotics and synbiotics to boost cognitive function in individuals with dementia, according to a meta-analysis.