Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by impairment of multiple higher cortical functions that include memory, orientation, thinking, comprehension, calculation, capacity for learning, language, judgment, executive function and visuo-spatial function. It is usually accompanied or preceded by deterioration in emotional control, social behavior or motivation.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Sporadic cases usually present after >60 year while familial types are rare and present in <60 year of age (early-onset dementia).
Short-term memory loss is the most common early symptom. Other spheres of cognitive impairment manifest after several years.
In the vulnerable old individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D), metformin is neuroprotective, with a recent study reporting that the drug reduces the speed of cognitive decline and staves off the risk of developing dementia.
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) may be associated with a reduced risk of dementia, according to a systematic review and network meta-analysis conducted by researchers from the Netherlands.
A new blood test for plasma P-tau217* accurately differentiates Alzheimer's disease (AD) from other neurodegenerative diseases — showing promise as a blood-based biomarker for early detection of AD, according to a study presented at the AAIC 2020 Meeting.
Individuals with late-onset epilepsy appear to exhibit faster declines in global cognition, verbal memory, executive function, and word fluency over time compared with those who do not have the neurological disorder, and some of these declines occur prior to the index seizure, a study has found.
In its 2020 update, the Lancet Commission on dementia prevention, intervention, and care has added excessive alcohol consumption, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and air pollution to the nine potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia modelled in 2017, namely, less education, hypertension, hearing impairment, smoking, obesity, depression, physical inactivity, diabetes, and low social contact.
Observational studies have reported that long-term use of anticholinergic drugs carries an increased hazard of developing dementia or cognitive decline, but no causal link can be inferred due to the nature of the studies and considerable risk of bias, according to a meta-analysis.
A new combination product (AXS-07), which consists of the triptan rizatriptan and the NSAID* meloxicam, led to rapid and sustained pain relief than treatment with either component alone or placebo in patients with a history of inadequate response to prior acute migraine treatment, according to data from the MOMENTUM study released during the AAN 2020 Meeting.
While aducanumab significantly reduced clinical decline in individuals with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) in one randomized trial, no changes were seen in another identical study — rendering the role of aducanumab in AD inconclusive.