Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by impairment of multiple higher cortical functions that include memory, orientation, thinking, comprehension, calculation, capacity for learning, language, judgment,  executive function and visuo-spatial function. It is usually accompanied or preceded by deterioration in emotional control, social behavior or motivation.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Sporadic cases usually present after >60 year while familial types are rare and present in <60 year of age (early-onset dementia).
Short-term memory loss is the most common early symptom. Other spheres of cognitive impairment manifest after several years.

Alzheimer's%20disease%20-and-%20dementia Management


Modifiable Risk Factors Which Prevent Dementia By:
Reducing neuropathological damage (amyloid or tau-mediated, vascular or inflammatory)
  • Avoid or stop smoking
  • Manage to control diabetes
  • Prevent head injury
  • Reduce air pollution
  • Reduce midlife obesity
  • Treat hypertension
Increasing and maintaining cognitive reserve
  • Attain high level of education
  • Maintain frequent social contact
  • Treat hearing impairment
Reducing neuropathological damage, and increasing and maintaining cognitive reserve
  • Avoid excessive alcohol
  • Maintain frequent exercise or physical activity
    • Moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity for at least 150 minutes/week or 75 minutes/week of vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity is recommended in adults aged ≥65 years
    • Reduce occurrence of depression
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