alzheimer's%20disease%20-and-%20dementia
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE AND DEMENTIA
Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by impairment of multiple higher cortical functions that include memory, orientation, thinking, comprehension, calculation, capacity for learning, language, judgment,  executive function and visuo-spatial function. It is usually accompanied or preceded by deterioration in emotional control, social behavior or motivation.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Sporadic cases usually present after >60 year while familial types are rare and present in <60 year of age (early-onset dementia).
Short-term memory loss is the most common early symptom. Other spheres of cognitive impairment manifest after several years.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Amnestic disorder
  • Age-related memory impairment
  • Delirium
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Schizophrenia
  • Mild cognitive impairment
    • Condition demonstrating focal or multifocal cognitive impairment not normal for age with minimal instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) impairment which does not cross the diagnosis of dementia
    • Can be the primary manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and secondary in other forms of dementia, neurologic disease processes, psychiatric disorder or systemic disease
    • Amnestic MCI (aMCI) is syndrome where memory dysfunction predominates
    • Nonamnestic MCI presents as more prominent impairment in other cognitive features (eg executive, language,visuo-spatial)
    • Patients assessed with MCI has greater risk of progressing to dementia
    • Encourage these patients to return for re-evaluation in 6-12 months
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
5 days ago
The ketogenic and Modified Atkin’s diets are effective treatments for children with refractory epilepsy of genetic aetiology, a new study suggests.
6 days ago
Extremely premature neonates who have been exposed to pre-eclampsia in utero are at high risk of developing severe respiratory distress syndrome and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, according to a study.
Pearl Toh, 4 days ago
A contraceptive vaginal system (Annovera) releasing a combination of segesterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol (SA/EE) effectively inhibits ovulation up to a year even at low systemic levels of SA, reports a review study presented at ENDO 2019.
12 Apr 2019
Acetaminophen remains a safe choice of analgesic for most elderly residents of nursing homes, a recent study suggests.