Alopecia is an involuntary loss of hair usually in the scalp that may occur anywhere over the body.
Scarring alopecia is severe inflammation of the hair follicle result in irreversible damage.
Non-scarring alopecias are reversible.
Alopecia may be abrupt or gradual in onset.
Most common causes include androgenic alopecia (male & female pattern baldness) & alopecia areata.
History should be reviewed for medications, severe diet restriction, vitamin A supplementation, thyroid symptoms, concomitant illness & stress factor.
Berth-Jones J. Alopecia areata. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, et al. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: Saunders, Elsevier; 2018. 29-33. :29-33.
Blume-Peytavi U, Blumeyer A, Tosti A, et al. S1 guideline for diagnostic evaluation in androgenetic alopecia in men, women and adolescents. Br J Dermatol. 2011 Jan;164(1):5-15. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010.10011.x. PMID: 20795997
Donovan J, Goldstein BG, Goldstein AO. Androgenetic alopecia in men: Pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. Mar 2019.
Donovan J, Goldstein BG, Goldstein AO. Treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. Feb 2019.
Kanti V, Messenger A, Dobos G, et al. S3 – European Dermatology Forum guideline for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women and in men. European Dermatology Forum. https://www.edf.one. 7 Jul 2017. Accessed 15 Oct 2019.
Kanti V, Messenger A, Dobos G, et al. Evidence-based (S3) guideline for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women and in men - short version. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2018 Jan;32(1):11-22. doi: 10.1111/jdv.14624. PMID: 29178529
Manabe M, Tsuboi R, Itami S, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of male-pattern and female-pattern hair loss, 2017 version. J Dermatol. 2018 Sep;45(9):1031-1043. doi: 10.1111/1346-8138.14470. PMID: 29863806
McMichael A. Female pattern hair loss (androgenetic alopecia in women): Pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. Jan 2019. Accessed 15 Oct 2019.
McMichael A. Female pattern hair loss (androgenetic alopecia in women): Treatment and prognosis. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. Sep 2019.
Messenger AG. Alopecia areata: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com. May 2019.
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa,
08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.
Spending too much time sitting cannot be good for the body, and rising to one's feet breaks up such a behaviour and yields small, but meaningful, reductions in certain cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, according to the results of a meta-analysis.