age-related%20macular%20degeneration
AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

Age-related macular degeneration is a common, chronic, progressive, degenerative disease that causes central loss of vision due to abnormalities that occurs in the pigment, neural and vascular layers of the macula.
The macular disorder may have one or more of the following:
- Formation of drusen which are localized deposits of extracellular material usually concentrated in the macula
- Abnormalities in the retinal pigment epithelium (eg hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation)
- Retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris geographic atrophy                                                                                                                                                                                                            - Neovascular (exudative) maculopathy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      - Choroidal neovascularization (CNV), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), reticular pseudodrusen, or retinal angiomatous proliferation

Decreased central vision and distortion of seeing straight lines are the most common symptoms.

Surgical Intervention

Laser Photocoagulation Therapy

  • Indicated in patients with extrafoveal classic CNV
  • May be used as a treatment option for patients with juxtapapillary CNV
  • Destroys the neovascular complex with heavy confluent laser and thereby decrease further loss of vision
  • Monitoring should be done as it can cause scotoma and recurrences that usually appears a year after therapy
  • Complications include severe vision loss which may be permanent following treatment and rupture of Bruch’s membrane with subretinal or vitreous hemorrhage
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