Age-related macular degeneration is a common, chronic, progressive, degenerative disease that causes central loss of vision due to abnormalities that occurs in the pigment, neural and vascular layers of the macula.
The macular disorder may have one or more of the following:
- Formation of drusen which are localized deposits of extracellular material usually concentrated in the macula
- Abnormalities in the retinal pigment epithelium (eg hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation)
- Retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris geographic atrophy
- Neovascular (exudative) maculopathy
Decreased central vision and distortion of seeing straight lines are the most common symptoms.
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American Optometric Association. Optometric clinical practice guideline. Care of the adult patient with age-related macular degeneration. http://www.aoa.org/documents/CPG-6.pdf. 2004
American Academy of Ophthalmology Retina Panel. Preferred practice pattern guidelines. Age-related macular degeneration. San Francisco, CA: American Academy of Ophthalmology. American Academy of Ophthalmology. http://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCoQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fone.aao.org%2Fasset.axd%3Fid%3Db1f95ead-7fd4-49e7-bcc9-b12249916069&ei=xIyeUuKWBYa8kgWkqIHYBg&usg=AFQjCNE8T9-ddaNh2A1c3BCjguF08ZdcQw&sig2=GmaAYwa8Ea5mj9S607b3. 2008
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa,
08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.