age-related%20macular%20degeneration
AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION
Age-related macular degeneration is a common, chronic, progressive, degenerative disease that causes central loss of vision due to abnormalities that occurs in the pigment, neural and vascular layers of the macula.
The macular disorder may have one or more of the following:
- Formation of drusen which are localized deposits of extracellular material usually concentrated in the macula
- Abnormalities in the retinal pigment epithelium (eg hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation)
- Retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris geographic atrophy
- Neovascular (exudative) maculopathy
Decreased central vision and distortion of seeing straight lines are the most common symptoms.
  1. Rosenfeld P, Martidis A, Tennant M. Age-related macular degeneration. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, et al. Ophthalmology. 3rd ed. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby, Elsevier; 2009
  2. International Council of Ophthalmology. Age-related macular degeneration (management recommendations). http://www.icoph.org/downloads/ICOARMDMa.pdf. Apr 2007
  3. Arroyo J. Age-related macular degeneration: epidemiology, etiology and diagnosis. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/age-related-macular-degeneration-clinical-presentation-etiology-and-diagnosis?source=search_result&search=Arroyo+J%09%22+Age-related+macular+degeneration%3A+epidemiology%2C+etiology++and++diagnosis%22&selectedTitle=1~53. Jul 2012. Accessed 15 Aug 2012
  4. The Royal College of Ophthalmologists. Age-related macular degeneration guidelines for management. http://www.rcophth.ac.uk/core/core_picker/download.asp?id=1851&filetitle=Age%2DRelated+Macular+Degeneration%3A+Guidelines+for+Management+2013. Feb 2009
  5. Arroyo J. Age-related macular degeneration: treatment and prevention. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/age-related-macular-degeneration-treatment-and-prevention?source=search_result&search=Arroyo+J%09%22+Age-related+macular+degeneration%3A+epidemiology%2C+etiology++and++diagnosis%22&selectedTitle=2~53. Jul 2012. Accessed 15 Aug 2012
  6. American Optometric Association. Optometric clinical practice guideline. Care of the adult patient with age-related macular degeneration. http://www.aoa.org/documents/CPG-6.pdf. 2004
  7. American Academy of Ophthalmology Retina Panel. Preferred practice pattern guidelines. Age-related macular degeneration. San Francisco, CA: American Academy of Ophthalmology. American Academy of Ophthalmology. http://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCoQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fone.aao.org%2Fasset.axd%3Fid%3Db1f95ead-7fd4-49e7-bcc9-b12249916069&ei=xIyeUuKWBYa8kgWkqIHYBg&usg=AFQjCNE8T9-ddaNh2A1c3BCjguF08ZdcQw&sig2=GmaAYwa8Ea5mj9S607b3. 2008
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