Treatment Guideline Chart

Age-related macular degeneration is a common, chronic, progressive, degenerative disease that causes central loss of vision due to abnormalities that occurs in the pigment, neural and vascular layers of the macula.
The macular disorder may have one or more of the following:
- Formation of drusen which are localized deposits of extracellular material usually concentrated in the macula
- Abnormalities in the retinal pigment epithelium (eg hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation)
- Retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris geographic atrophy                                                                                                                                                                                                            - Neovascular (exudative) maculopathy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      - Choroidal neovascularization (CNV), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), reticular pseudodrusen, or retinal angiomatous proliferation

Decreased central vision and distortion of seeing straight lines are the most common symptoms.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration References

  1. Rosenfeld P, Martidis A, Tennant M. Age-related macular degeneration. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, et al. Ophthalmology. 3rd ed. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby, Elsevier; 2009
  2. International Council of Ophthalmology. Age-related macular degeneration (management recommendations). Apr 2007.
  3. Arroyo J. Age-related macular degeneration: epidemiology, etiology and diagnosis. UpToDate. Jul 2012. Accessed 15 Aug 2012.
  4. The Royal College of Ophthalmologists. Age-related macular degeneration guidelines for management. Feb 2009.
  5. Arroyo J. Age-related macular degeneration: treatment and prevention. UpToDate. Jul 2012. Accessed 15 Aug 2012.
  6. American Optometric Association. Optometric clinical practice guideline. Care of the adult patient with age-related macular degeneration. 2004.
  7. American Academy of Ophthalmology Retina Panel. Preferred practice pattern guidelines. Age-related macular degeneration. San Francisco, CA: American Academy of Ophthalmology. American Academy of Ophthalmology. 2008.
  8. Arias L, Monés J. Fluorescein angiography. Oct 2011.
  9. Arroyo JG. Age-related macular degeneration: clinical presentation, etiology, and diagnosis. UpToDate. 18 Apr 2021.
  10. Arroyo JG. Age-related macular degeneration: treatment and prevention. UpToDate. 22 Apr 2021.
  11. Flaxel CJ, Adelman RA, Bailey ST, et al. Age-related macular degeneration Preferred Practice Pattern®. Ophthalmology. 2020 Jan;127(1):P1-P65. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2019.09.024. PMID: 31757502
  12. Gerson J, Corbin G, Ferrucci S, et al. Practical guidelines for the treatment of AMD. 15 Oct 2017.
  13. Holekamp NM. Review of neovascular age-related macular degeneration treatment options. Am J Manag Care. 2019 Jul;25(Suppl 10):S172-S181. PMID: 31419088
  14. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Age-related macular degeneration. NICE. 23 Jan 2018.
  15. Optometry Australia. 2019 clinical practice guide for the diagnosis, treatment and management of age-related macular degeneration. Optometry Australia. 2019.
  16. Ricci F, Bandello F, Navarra P, et al. Neovascular age-related macular degeneration: therapeutic management and new-upcoming approaches. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Nov;21(21):8242. doi: 10.3390/ijms21218242. PMID: 33153227
  17. Schmidt-Erfurth U, Chong V, Loewenstein A, et al. Guidelines for the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration by the European Society of Retina Specialists (EURETINA). Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Sep;98(9):1144-1167. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2014-305702. PMID: 25136079
  18. VitreoRetina Society of the Philippines (VRSP). Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) preferred practice patterns (PPP) Philippines 2016. VRSP. 11 Nov 2016.
Editor's Recommendations
Special Reports