Age-related macular degeneration is a common, chronic, progressive, degenerative disease that causes central loss of vision due to abnormalities that occurs in the pigment, neural and vascular layers of the macula.
The macular disorder may have one or more of the following:
- Formation of drusen which are localized deposits of extracellular material usually concentrated in the macula
- Abnormalities in the retinal pigment epithelium (eg hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation)
- Retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris geographic atrophy
- Neovascular (exudative) maculopathy
Decreased central vision and distortion of seeing straight lines are the most common symptoms.
Instruct patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on how to test their vision daily or at least weekly
While patients with exudative AMD or have had laser treatment, should be instructed on how to monitor the size of their blind spots or the appearance of new ones
Encourage high risk patients (eg with early AMD and/or family history of AMD) to have regular dilated eye exams for the early detection of the intermediate stage of AMD
For low risk patients, it is recommended to have comprehensive medical eye evaluation schedule as below:
Patients 40-54 years old every 2-4 years
Patients 55-64 years old every 1-3 years
Patients ≥65 years old every 1-2 years
Patients should be informed about the symptoms of progressing choroidal neovascularization (CNV) (eg progressive decrease in central vision) and counsel on the need for prompt consultation with an ophthalmologist
Smoking cessation should be done as this is the main modifiable risk factor for AMD
Diet that includes leafy green vegetables, fresh fruits and fishes rich in omega-3 fatty acids may help decrease the risk for AMD
Maintain an ideal body weight
Increased body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity have increased risk for AMD
Wear sunglasses with 100% protection against ultraviolet A and B (UVA and UVB) radiation in bright environments
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa,
08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.
Spending too much time sitting cannot be good for the body, and rising to one's feet breaks up such a behaviour and yields small, but meaningful, reductions in certain cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, according to the results of a meta-analysis.