age-related%20macular%20degeneration
AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION
Age-related macular degeneration is a common, chronic, progressive, degenerative disease that causes central loss of vision due to abnormalities that occurs in the pigment, neural and vascular layers of the macula.
The macular disorder may have one or more of the following:
- Formation of drusen which are localized deposits of extracellular material usually concentrated in the macula
- Abnormalities in the retinal pigment epithelium (eg hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation)
- Retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris geographic atrophy
- Neovascular (exudative) maculopathy
Decreased central vision and distortion of seeing straight lines are the most common symptoms.

Patient Education

  • Instruct patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on how to test their vision daily or at least weekly
    • While patients with exudative AMD or have had laser treatment, should be instructed on how to monitor the size of their blind spots or the appearance of new ones
  • Encourage high risk patients (eg with early AMD and/or family history of AMD) to have regular dilated eye exams for the early detection of the intermediate stage of AMD
  • For low risk patients, it is recommended to have comprehensive medical eye evaluation schedule as below:
    • Patients 40-54 years old every 2-4 years
    • Patients 55-64 years old every 1-3 years
    • Patients ≥65 years old every 1-2 years
  • Patients should be informed about the symptoms of progressing choroidal neovascularization (CNV) (eg progressive decrease in central vision) and counsel on the need for prompt consultation with an ophthalmologist
  • Smoking cessation should be done as this is the main modifiable risk factor for AMD
  • Diet that includes leafy green vegetables, fresh fruits and fishes rich in omega-3 fatty acids may help decrease the risk for AMD
  • Maintain an ideal body weight
    • Increased body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity have increased risk for AMD
  • Wear sunglasses with 100% protection against ultraviolet A and B (UVA and UVB) radiation in bright environments
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Rachel Soon, 16 Aug 2019

On 8 August, the first town hall held by the Ministry of Health (MOH) with members of the pharmacy profession took place in Putrajaya. Over 500 pharmacists from across the country and from different areas of practice—community and hospital, public and private, academy and industry—converged to fill the auditorium for the chance to engage in direct dialogue with MOH.

5 days ago
Pulmonary function has potential predictive value for future increases in arterial stiffness and its progression, as reported in a recent study.
3 days ago
Systolic blood pressure appears to have a strong association with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) but not with unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA), whereas current smoking and female sex are risk factors for both conditions, a study has found.
6 days ago
Poor adherence to blood pressure-lowering medications does not appear to be a cause of masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH), with a recent study showing that the levels of medication adherence is similar between patients with MUCH and those with true controlled hypertension.