age-related%20macular%20degeneration
AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION
Age-related macular degeneration is a common, chronic, progressive, degenerative disease that causes central loss of vision due to abnormalities that occurs in the pigment, neural and vascular layers of the macula.
The macular disorder may have one or more of the following:
- Formation of drusen which are localized deposits of extracellular material usually concentrated in the macula
- Abnormalities in the retinal pigment epithelium (eg hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation)
- Retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris geographic atrophy
- Neovascular (exudative) maculopathy
Decreased central vision and distortion of seeing straight lines are the most common symptoms.

Patient Education

  • Instruct patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on how to test their vision daily or at least weekly
    • While patients with exudative AMD or have had laser treatment, should be instructed on how to monitor the size of their blind spots or the appearance of new ones
  • Encourage high risk patients (eg with early AMD and/or family history of AMD) to have regular dilated eye exams for the early detection of the intermediate stage of AMD
  • For low risk patients, it is recommended to have comprehensive medical eye evaluation schedule as below:
    • Patients 40-54 years old every 2-4 years
    • Patients 55-64 years old every 1-3 years
    • Patients ≥65 years old every 1-2 years
  • Patients should be informed about the symptoms of progressing choroidal neovascularization (CNV) (eg progressive decrease in central vision) and counsel on the need for prompt consultation with an ophthalmologist
  • Smoking cessation should be done as this is the main modifiable risk factor for AMD
  • Diet that includes leafy green vegetables, fresh fruits and fishes rich in omega-3 fatty acids may help decrease the risk for AMD
  • Maintain an ideal body weight
    • Increased body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity have increased risk for AMD
  • Wear sunglasses with 100% protection against ultraviolet A and B (UVA and UVB) radiation in bright environments
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Pearl Toh, Yesterday
First-line therapy with the BTK* inhibitor ibrutinib plus the anti-CD20 immunotherapy rituximab confers significant survival advantage over the current gold-standard regimen of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) for young, fit patients with treatment-naïve chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), according to the E1912 trial, a large cooperative group study supported by the US National Cancer Institute.
6 days ago
Low-dose administrations of haloperidol after thoracic surgery does not appear to prevent postoperative delirium, according to a new study.
4 days ago
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) displays comparable rates of mortality and serious composite outcomes but a higher rate of target-vessel revascularization at 10 years relative to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with significant left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease, reports a study. On the other hand, CABG delivers lower mortality and serious composite outcome rates compared with PCI with drug-eluting stents after 5 years.
Pearl Toh, 6 days ago
Apixaban slashes the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) by 90 percent in cancer patients compared with the low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) dalteparin, with no increase in major bleeding risk, according to the ADAM VTE study presented at ASH 2018.