Age-related macular degeneration is a common, chronic, progressive, degenerative disease that causes central loss of vision due to abnormalities that occurs in the pigment, neural and vascular layers of the macula.
The macular disorder may have one or more of the following:
- Formation of drusen which are localized deposits of extracellular material usually concentrated in the macula
- Abnormalities in the retinal pigment epithelium (eg hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation)
- Retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris geographic atrophy
- Neovascular (exudative) maculopathy
Decreased central vision and distortion of seeing straight lines are the most common symptoms.

Patient Education

  • Instruct patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on how to test their vision daily or at least weekly
    • While patients with exudative AMD or have had laser treatment, should be instructed on how to monitor the size of their blind spots or the appearance of new ones
  • Encourage high risk patients (eg with early AMD and/or family history of AMD) to have regular dilated eye exams for the early detection of the intermediate stage of AMD
  • For low risk patients, it is recommended to have comprehensive medical eye evaluation schedule as below:
    • Patients 40-54 years old every 2-4 years
    • Patients 55-64 years old every 1-3 years
    • Patients ≥65 years old every 1-2 years
  • Patients should be informed about the symptoms of progressing choroidal neovascularization (CNV) (eg progressive decrease in central vision) and counsel on the need for prompt consultation with an ophthalmologist
  • Smoking cessation should be done as this is the main modifiable risk factor for AMD
  • Diet that includes leafy green vegetables, fresh fruits and fishes rich in omega-3 fatty acids may help decrease the risk for AMD
  • Maintain an ideal body weight
    • Increased body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity have increased risk for AMD
  • Wear sunglasses with 100% protection against ultraviolet A and B (UVA and UVB) radiation in bright environments
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
10 Mar 2018
Compared to triple therapy, dual antithrombotic therapy yields reduced bleeding without excess ischaemic and thromboembolic cardiac events in patients with long-term indication to chronic oral anticoagulation following percutaneous coronary intervention, according to a new study.
09 Mar 2018
Exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy, but not in infantile age, appears to carry an increased risk of developing very early onset (VEO) inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children, as reported in a study from Sweden.
Pearl Toh, 5 days ago
Listening to upbeat music during an ECG treadmill stress test significantly prolongs exercise time, suggests a pilot study presented at the American College of Cardiology 2018 (ACC.18) Annual Scientific Session in Orlando, Florida, US.
Rachel Soon, Yesterday

Intake of calcium supplements may up the risk of developing sessile serrated adenomas or polyps (SSA/Ps) in the colon, according to a new study.