Age-related macular degeneration is a common, chronic, progressive, degenerative disease that causes central loss of vision due to abnormalities that occurs in the pigment, neural and vascular layers of the macula.
The macular disorder may have one or more of the following:
- Formation of drusen which are localized deposits of extracellular material usually concentrated in the macula
- Abnormalities in the retinal pigment epithelium (eg hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation)
- Retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris geographic atrophy
- Neovascular (exudative) maculopathy
Decreased central vision and distortion of seeing straight lines are the most common symptoms.
Adding rescue photodynamic therapy (rPDT) to treatment with the anti-VEGF agent aflibercept intravitreally did not provide additional benefit for patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), a type of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), according to the PLANET study, suggesting that aflibercept monotherapy sufficed for these patients.
Higher adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) results in a 41-percent reduced risk of incident advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD), according to pooled data from the Rotterdam Study I (RS-I) and Alienor* Study.
Following a diet consisting of vegetables 200 g per day, fruit two times per day and fish two times per week is good advice for individuals at risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), as it yields a significant reduction in the risk of the eye disease, according to a recent study.
Intravitreal injection of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy is a safe and effective treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) over 2 years, the period for which data are available in this literature review.
Age-related macular degeneration is strongly associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, with the magnitude of effect being higher for early disease and related to drusen size and area, a study has found.
Treatment with subthreshold nanosecond laser does not appear to effectively slow down the rate of progression to late age-related macular degeneration in patients with intermediate disease, according to the results of the LEAD trial.
Treatment with emixustat does not appear to help reduce the growth rate of geographic atrophy in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), according to the results of a phase IIb/III trial.
Administering conbercept at a dose of 0.5 mg once monthly for the first 3 months then once quarterly until month 12 appears to be effective in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, with significant improvements in visual acuity observed at month 3 and maintained through 1 year, according to the results of the phase III PHOENIX trial.
Once-daily dosing of the Rho kinase inhibitor netarsudil is not inferior to twice-daily timolol in terms of lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, while having tolerable adverse events, according to the results of the phase III ROCKET-4 trial.
Transdermal androgen appears beneficial to ageing patients with sex hormone deficiency-associated dry eye, with a recent study showing that short-term treatment relieves both symptoms and signs of the condition, as well as improves quality of life (QOL). These benefits are achieved without increasing the incidence of serious side effects.