Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is the insufficient secretions of corticosteroids that may cause partial or complete destruction of the adrenal glands.
Primary AI or Addison’s disease is due to the inability of the adrenal gland to produce steroid hormones even when the stimulus by the pituitary gland via corticotrophin is adequate or increased.
Secondary AI is due to disorders of the pituitary gland that causes production of low levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone that will result to reduced cortisol levels.
Tertiary AI is the inability of the hypothalamus to produce sufficient amount of corticotropin releasing hormone.
Signs and symptoms are usually nonspecific with insidious onset.
Common signs and symptoms are fatigue, weakness, salt craving, orthostatic hypotension, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, anorexia and weight loss.
Undergoing in-facility physical activity (PA) programmes initiated before the 20th week of gestation helps reduce the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among high-risk mothers, according to the results of a meta-analysis.