Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is the insufficient secretions of corticosteroids that may cause partial or complete destruction of the adrenal glands.
Primary AI or Addison’s disease is due to the inability of the adrenal gland to produce steroid hormones even when the stimulus by the pituitary gland via corticotrophin is adequate or increased.
Secondary AI is due to disorders of the pituitary gland that causes production of low levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone that will result to reduced cortisol levels.
Tertiary AI is the inability of the hypothalamus to produce sufficient amount of corticotropin releasing hormone.
Signs and symptoms are usually nonspecific with insidious onset.
Common signs and symptoms are fatigue, weakness, salt craving, orthostatic hypotension, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, anorexia and weight loss.
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa,
08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.