Acute coronary syndromes refer to any constellation of clinical symptoms compatible with acute myocardial ischemia which may be life-threatening.
It encompasses unstable angina, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Unstable angina is the ischemic discomfort that presents without persistent ST-segment elevation on ECG and without the presence of cardiac markers in the blood.
Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is diagnosed if cardiac markers are positive with ST-segment depression or with nonspecific or normal ECGs.
The patient typically presents with ischemic-type chest pain that is severe and prolonged and may occur at rest or may be caused by less exertion than previous episodes.
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remained high in many patients with stable or acute coronary heart disease (CHD) in Asia, despite having a very high risk of recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events, indicating that the use of lipid-lowering therapies and lipid monitoring were inadequate.
Very early invasive coronary angiography within 12 hours does not significantly improve long-term outcomes of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) compared with the standard strategy of evaluation within 48–72 hours, according to results of the VERDICT trial reported at the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress 2018.
Drug-coated balloons (DCB) are noninferior to drug-eluting stents (DES) for the management of small native coronary artery disease (CAD), according to results of the BASKET-SMALL 2 trial presented at the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress 2018.
Revascularization of chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO) with the new-generation zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES) using contemporary technique led to a favourable procedural success and improved health status and late-term clinical outcomes, hence lending support to CTO revascularization with ZES in a high-lesion, complex patient population, according to the PERSPECTIVE trial*.
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with diabetes mellitus, as well as high-risk nondiabetic patients, appear to obtain significant cardioprotection from the addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin, and this benefit is achieved without compromising safety, according to an exploratory analysis of data from IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial).
Taking marine-derived omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplements does not appear to protect participants from coronary heart disease (CHD) and major vascular events, regardless of history of vascular disease, lipid levels, statin use, or diabetes, suggests a recent meta-analysis.
Not only does treatment with the PCSK9* inhibitor alirocumab reduces cardiovascular (CV) events along with plunges in LDL-C levels, it was also associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality compared with placebo in patient with a recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and persistently high cholesterol despite maximal statin therapy, according to top-line results from the ODYSSEY** Outcomes trial.
Adding coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores to the traditional Framingham risk score may improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk classification in patients with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes (T2D) than using traditional score alone, even in those with diabetes for over 10 years, according to the MESA* study.