Most Read Articles
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Surrogate CVD outcomes not associated with immune markers in HIV-positive adults

20 Jan 2017
The many virus pandemics in the past millennium may provide clues for the current battle against HIV/AIDS.

There appears to be no significant correlation between immune markers and surrogate outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults with HIV, a new meta-analysis reports. While it is possible that this means a true lack of relationship, this may also be attributable to the heterogeneity of the studies.

Relevant studies were searched in PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase. Articles published between 1996 and April 2015 were included. The meta-analysis investigated the association between immune markers and surrogate markers of CVD, excluding Carotid Intima-media thickness, in adults with HIV.

Studies that examined at least one surrogate CVD outcome in HIV patients above the age of 18 were included while those that were performed on animal systems, were not in English and involved less than 10 cases were excluded from the meta-analysis.

After the application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 29 articles were found to be eligible for the analysis. Cumulatively, these studies describe 34 immune markers and nine surrogate outcomes for cardiovascular disease. Of the 29 studies, 27 employed a cross-sectional experimental design.

The most frequently used outcomes were coronary calcium scores (used 13 times) and flow-mediated dilation (used 10 times). Among the other outcomes were MRI scans, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, pulse wave velocity and ankle-brachial index.

Of all the immune markers investigated across all of the studies, IL-6, sVCAM-1 and CRP were the most commonly used. Other markers were SAA, ILS, LPS and IFN-γ. Furthermore, none of the immune markers analysed showed any apparent association with any of the CVD surrogate outcomes.

Unfortunately, calculation of effect estimates was impossible as a result of the heterogeneity between studies in terms of statistical analyses employed, study populations, outcomes and immune markers investigated.

The findings show that there is no association between the surrogate outcomes of CVD and immune markers in adults with HIV. However, the heterogeneity of studies used may contribute to the uncertainty of this conclusion. More studies in the future are required to draw better conclusions.

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Most Read Articles
Pank Jit Sin, 07 Jan 2015

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been the main cause of death in the Malaysian population since 2007. This trend has continued, with the number of people dying from CVD-related causes increasing year on year. 

Elaine Soliven, 11 Oct 2017
Reducing daily salt intake is associated with improved blood pressure (BP) levels in patients with hypertension, according to a study presented at APCH 2017.
Roshini Claire Anthony, 28 Sep 2017

Intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering appears to reduce mortality risk during treatment in individuals with hypertension and moderate-to-advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), findings from a recent systematic review and meta-analysis show.

21 Sep 2017
The risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease and heart failure is greater among metabolically healthy obese than normal weight metabolically healthy individuals, suggests a recent study. Additionally, even those who are normal weight can have metabolic abnormalities and similar risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events.