Super selective bronchial artery embolisation safe, effective for treating haemoptysis
Patients with haemoptysis can be safely and effectively treated for long term with super selective bronchial artery embolisation using platinum coils instead of particles, a new study reports.
The study involved 489 patients diagnosed with either massive or nonmassive haemoptysis and subsequently underwent elective super selective bronchial artery embolisation. Those who underwent emergency interventions, with lung cancer and who received haemodialysis were excluded.
The primary outcome of the study was the composite of the recurrence of haemoptysis within 3 years and the mortality starting from the day of the last session. Survival rate in 3 years and the recurrence-free haemoptysis rate within 3 years were the secondary outcomes.
The median age of the population was 9 years, and 46.4 percent of the patients were male. Success rate of the procedure was determined to be 93.4 percent. Of the patients, only 1.6 percent had major complications. There was one case of aortic dissection, two cases of symptomatic cerebellar infarctions and five cases of mediastinal haematoma.
During the duration of the study, there were 57 recurrences of haemoptysis and 23 deaths. Eight of these deaths were because of unknown causes, while pneumonia, exacerbation of existing conditions and haemoptysis were the causes of 5 deaths each.
During the first year, the haemoptysis-free survival rate was 86.9 percent. During the second and third years, the rates were 79.4 and 57.6 percent, respectively. On the other hand, the respective recurrence-free haemoptysis rates for the first, second and third years were 90.4, 85.9 and 67.7 percent.
Survival rates were 96.2, 93.3 and 91.1 for the first, second and third years respectively.
The findings show that super selective bronchial artery embolisation with platinum coils is a viable, safe and effective long-tem therapeutic option for patients with haemoptysis.