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Micronutrient levels vary in patients with Down syndrome

13 Aug 2017

Patients with Down syndrome (DS) have lower blood concentrations of zinc, selenium and calcium, and higher blood cell levels of copper and zinc, according to a systematic review.

Studies that measured micronutrient levels in whole blood, hair, saliva, red cell, serum and plasma samples of DS patients and controls were searched from the databases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus. Those that measured protein and mRNA expression were excluded. A total of 69 studies met the inclusion criteria.

The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess methodological quality of the eligible observational studies. Information extracted from the studies included type of specimen, study sample characteristics, assay used and micronutrient levels.

Five comparisons (cases n=83; controls n=125) showed that red blood cell (RBC) levels of copper were significantly higher in patients with DS than in controls (standardized mean difference [SMD], 2.77; 95 percent CI, 1.96 to 3.57; p<0.00001).

Selenium concentration in the blood (SMD, -0.99; -1.55 to -0.43; p=0.0006), serum (SMD, -0.60; -0.97 to -0.23; p=0.001) and whole blood (SMD, -2.60; -3.32 to -1.89; p<0.00001) were significantly lower in DS cases.

Additionally, while blood calcium was significantly lower in DS cases (SMD, -0.63; -1.16 to -0.09; p=0.02), salivary levels were significantly higher (SMD, 0.85; 0.38 to 1.33; p=0.0004). Salivary sodium was significantly elevated in DS cases (SMD, 1.04; 0.39 to 1.69; p=0.002).

Blood (SMD, -1.30; -1.75 to -0.84; p<0.00001), plasma (SMD, -1.23; -1.93 to -0.54; p=0.0005), serum (SMD, -1.44; -1.93 to -0.95; p<0.00001) and hair (SMD, -0.54; -0.97 to -0.12; p=0.01) zinc concentrations were significantly lower in patients with DS, while RBC zinc (SMD, 2.62; 1.59 to 3.66; p<0.00001) was higher.

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Most Read Articles
Elvira Manzano, 4 days ago
Bisphosphonates have proven antifracture efficacy and remain to be the cornerstone of osteoporosis treatment. However, a drug holiday is of particular importance with bisphosphonates due to some signals with long-term use of the drug, including rare incidence of atypical femoral fracture (AFF) and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), says a leading endocrinologist at AFOS 2017.
Yesterday
Breast cancer patients have notably different microbiomes in the local breast tissue and urinary tract, a recent study reveals. Particularly, species in the Methylobacterium genus are reduced in the local breast tissue while the urinary tract is enriched in gram-positive bacteria.
Pearl Toh, 13 Oct 2017
Women with higher plasma tryptophan concentrations were less likely to have poor sleep quality during pregnancy, especially among those with anxiety symptoms, according to the GUSTO* study.
Tristan Manalac, Yesterday
Statin use, particularly in smokers, obese patients and nondiabetics, has a strong and dose-dependent association with decreasing risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), according to a new study.