Intake of long-chain n‒3 PUFAs does not correlate with change in body weight, waist circumference
Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n‒3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are not associated with change in body weight or waist circumference, according to a recent study.
Researchers followed a total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n‒3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-year change in body weight and waist circumference. They also examined the effect modification by the carbohydrate:protein ratio and glycaemic index.
A validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort (n=1,660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and after 5 years. A linear regression model was used to examine the associations.
The difference in 5-year weight change between high (1.22 g/day) and low (0.28 g/day) total n‒3 PUFA intake was 147.6 g (95 percent CI, ‒42.3 to 337.5 g; p=0.088 for trend). No associations existed between the individual n‒3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Intake of n‒3 PUFAs did not correlate with a 5-year change in waist circumference.
Furthermore, the difference in 5-year weight change between high (0.16 percent) and low (0.06 percent) adipose tissue content of EPA was ‒649.6 g (‒1,254.2 to ‒44.9 g; p=0.027 for trend). No associations existed between 5-year weight change and total n‒3 PUFAs, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. There was no correlation between adipose tissue content of n‒3 PUFAs and 5-year change in waist circumference.
Researchers also did not find effect modification by carbohydrate:protein ratio or glycaemic index.