Higher dietary calcium intake may prevent cardiovascular disease in women
Increased dietary calcium intake may lower the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women, but not stroke or fracture, according to a Korea study.
In this prospective cohort study initiated in 2001, researchers assessed a total of 2,158 men and 2,153 women (aged >50 years) with low calcium intake for all-cause mortality, CVD, stroke and fractures over a median follow-up of 9 years.
There were 242 deaths, 149 CVD events, 58 stroke events and 211 incident fractures in men during follow-up, while the corresponding figures in women were 100, 150, 82 and 292. The first quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary calcium intake were 249 and 209 mg/d in men and women, respectively.
Men and women with increased dietary calcium intake were likely to have higher consumption of fat, protein, sodium, phosphorus, fruit and vegetable.
Dietary calcium intake with or without adjustment were not significantly associated with outcomes in men. Furthermore, CVD risk was associated with increasing energy-adjusted dietary calcium intake, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.078 and p=0.093 with and without adjustment, respectively).
On the other hand, CVD risk showed a U-shaped association with dietary calcium intake in women. Without adjustment, the hazard ratios relative to the first quartile were 0.71 (95 percent CI, 0.47 to 1.07) for quartile 2, 0.57 (0.36 to 0.88) for quartile 3 and 0.52 (0.33 to 0.83) for quartile 4; after adjustment, the corresponding values for quartiles 2, 3 and 4 were 0.70 (0.45 to 1.07), 0.51 (0.31 to 0.81) and 0.49 (0.29 to 0.83).