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High sodium intake may impair cardiac structure, function

07 Aug 2017

Estimated sodium intake (ESI) greater than 3.7 g per day may result in adverse cardiac remodeling and worse systolic strain and diastolic e’ velocity, according to a study.

Researchers conducted speckle-tracking analysis on Hyper Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN) study echocardiograms with available urinary sodium data (n=2,996) to examine whether assessment of left ventricular longitudinal strain (LS), circumferential strain and e’ velocity could provide insight into thresholds for the detrimental effects of ESI on subclinical cardiovascular disease.

The associations among ESI and LS, circumferential strain and e’ velocity was evaluated using multivariable-adjusted linear mixed-effects models with linear splines (spline 1: ESI ≤3.7 g/day; spline 2: ESI >3.7 g/day based on visual inspection of fractional polynomial plots of the association between ESI and indices of strain and e′ velocity).

Researchers also sought to understand the indirect effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum aldosterone on the relationship between ESI and strain and e’ velocity by performing mediation analysis.

Participants (mean age 49 years; 57 percent female; 50 percent African American; 54 percent had hypertension) had a median ESI of 3.73 g/day. ESI >3.7 g/day correlated with larger left atrial and left ventricular dimensions (p<0.05).

Adjustments for several factors (such as speckle-tracking analyst, image quality, age, sex, study site, alcohol use, smoking status, daily blocks walked, diuretic use, estimated glomerular filtration rate, left ventricular mass, ejection fraction and wall motion score index) revealed that ESI >3.7 g/day was associated with both strain parameters and e’ velocity (p<0.05 for all comparisons), but ESI ≤3.7 g/day was not (p>0.05 for all comparisons).

Potassium excretion showed significant interactions for circumferential strain.

Based on mediation analysis, SBP explained 14 and 20 percent of indirect effects between ESI and LS and e’ velocity, respectively. On the other hand, serum aldosterone explained 19 percent of the indirect effects between ESI and LS.

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Most Read Articles
Roshini Claire Anthony, 6 days ago

Treatment failure in osteoporosis remains a problem, even among patients who are treatment-adherent, according to a presentation at the recent meeting of the Asian Federation of Osteoporosis Societies (AFOS 2017), held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 

Elvira Manzano, 5 days ago
Bisphosphonates have proven antifracture efficacy and remain to be the cornerstone of osteoporosis treatment. However, a drug holiday is of particular importance with bisphosphonates due to some signals with long-term use of the drug, including rare incidence of atypical femoral fracture (AFF) and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), says a leading endocrinologist at AFOS 2017.
2 days ago
Breast cancer patients have notably different microbiomes in the local breast tissue and urinary tract, a recent study reveals. Particularly, species in the Methylobacterium genus are reduced in the local breast tissue while the urinary tract is enriched in gram-positive bacteria.
Pearl Toh, 13 Oct 2017
Women with higher plasma tryptophan concentrations were less likely to have poor sleep quality during pregnancy, especially among those with anxiety symptoms, according to the GUSTO* study.