Fructose intake adversely affects cardiometabolic risk factors, liver fat in obese men
Moderate fructose consumption delivers negative effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and liver fat content despite only marginally increasing weight and waist circumference, a new study has found.
In the study sample of 71 males (mean age 49.1±10 years) who underwent the 12-week fructose diet intervention, researchers found that 75 g of fructose daily significantly increased systolic blood pressure (p=0.02), fasting insulin (p=0.004) and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index values (p=0.002).
Moreover, fasting serum concentrations of triglycerides (TG; p=0.02) and apoC-III (p=0.006) were significantly elevated after the fructose diet. Notably, apoC-III was positively correlated with TG and postprandial TG after fructose intervention.
De novo lipogenesis (DNL) in the fasting state was significantly elevated as a result of fructose feeding (12.3 vs 16.5 percent de novo palmitic acid; p<0.01). On the other hand, fasting β-hydroxybutyrate was significantly reduced after fructose feeding (p=0.005). The changes in DNA and β-hydroxybutyrate after fructose intervention were significantly negatively correlated with each other (p=0.002).
Healthy obese males with large waist circumferences (BMI from 27 to 40 kg/m2; waist circumference >96 cm) were recruited via newspaper advertisements. Exclusion criteria included type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hepatic and renal diseases, and hormonal therapy.
Fructose was delivered in daily 75-g doses as 330-mL carbonated beverages. Subjects consumed the beverages together with the main daily meals while continuing their habitual diets.
“Interestingly, the individual changes of liver fat were highly variable in subjects with the same weight change,” researchers said. “Importantly, the adverse changes of cardiometabolic risk factors seemed to cluster more with the increase of liver fat than with the weight gain.”