First time blood donors face high risk of adverse events
Young age, high haemoglobin and lower weight increase the risk of adverse events in whole blood donors, a new study has shown. Moreover, first time donors also suffer from higher risks of adverse events.
An analysis of a cohort of 18,936 adult, healthy whole blood donors showed that the overall incidence rate of adverse events was 1.1 percent (n=208). Mild adverse events comprised 0.65 percent (n=123) while severe events comprised 0.45 percent (n=85).
Incidence rate of adverse events was significantly higher in donors <30 years of age (1.5 percent; p<0.001), with haemoglobin levels >15 g/dL (1.3 percent; p=0.005) and with weight <75 kg (1.6 percent; p<0.001).
Compared with previous donors, first time donors had significantly higher incidence rate of adverse events (0.6 vs 1.6 percent; p<0.001).
Multivariate analysis revealed that age <30 years (adjusted relative risk [ARR], 1.58; 95 percent CI, 1.18 to 2.12; p=0.002), high haemoglobin levels (ARR, 1.30; 1.15 to 1.46; p<0.001) and body weight <75 kg (ARR, 1.71; 1.29 to 2.27; p<0.001) were all significant predictors of adverse events following whole blood donation.
First-time donors (ARR, 2.21; 1.64 to 2.97; p<0.001) were also at elevated risks of adverse events after adjusting for potential confounders.
Dizziness was the leading mild adverse event with an incidence rate of 84.6 percent. This was followed by pallor (75.5 percent). On the other hand, hypertension (14.4 percent) and syncope (13.0 percent) were the most frequent severe adverse events reported.
There were no significant differences in the incidence rates of mild and severe adverse events between the different significant risk predictors.