Dragon fruit reduces FPG in patients with prediabetes but not type 2 diabetes
Dragon fruit appears to significantly reduce fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in individuals with prediabetes, according to a recent meta-analysis. In contrast, dragon fruit exerts no beneficial effect on type 2 diabetes patients.
The current meta-analysis involved four studies, of which three were nonblinded parallel studies that focused on type 2 diabetes patients, while one was a single-blinded cross-over study that examined individuals with prediabetes.
The study that looked at individuals with prediabetes included three treatment arms each with their own controls; each arm was considered a separate study. Pooled data from these arms showed that dragon fruit significantly decreased FPG levels compared with controls (mean difference [MD], -15.1 mg/dL; 95 percent CI, -23.8 to -6.5 mg/dL; p=0.0006).
In contrast, data from the three studies that focused on type 2 diabetes patients showed that, while FPG was decreased in the dragon fruit group, the difference did not reach statistical significance (MD, -26.5 mg/dL; -72.6 to 19.6 mg/dL; p=0.26).
Similarly, dragon fruit also does not exert a significant impact on 2 hours postprandial glucose (2HPP) levels (MD, -30.5 mg/dL; -80.9 to 19.9 mg/dL; p=0.24).
Randomized controlled trials that compared the effect of dragon fruit on the glycaemic control of patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes against placebo were searched from the databases of Medline, Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, among others.
“The effect in [type 2 diabetes] was not significant, but there was a trend towards greater blood glucose reduction with higher dose. Due to restricted available data and poor quality of clinical evidence, larger, adequate-power, well-controlled clinical trials are required to further evaluate the clinical benefit of dragon fruit in these patients,” said researchers.