Most Read Articles
Radha Chitale, one year ago
MSD Pharma (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. has partnered with local cancer and paediatric societies on a campaign to raise awareness about human papilloma virus (HPV) – the most common risk factor for cervical cancer – and the option to get vaccinated.
Smriti Rana, one year ago
Prolonged breastfeeding has a beneficial long term effect on a person’s intelligence quotient (IQ) in adulthood and may be associated with higher levels of education and income potential, a recent study has shown.
3 years ago

Over the past few decades, there has been widespread concern about the increasing proportion of births born by caesarean delivery. The rising rate of primary caesarean section has led to the increased number of obstetric population with a history of prior caesarean delivery. Although this group of women may be offered planned vaginal birth after previous caesarean section (VBAC) or elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS), the VBAC rate is generally low particularly in well-developed countries. In the United States, the VBAC rate has decreased to 8.5% by 2006, while the total caesarean rate has increased to 31.1%.1

Tracy TC Kwan, BSc (Nursing), MPH; Hextan YS Ngan, MBBS, FHKAM (O&G), MD (HK), FRCOG, 3 years ago

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a prevalent disease worldwide. Consequences of HPV infection vary, depending on the infected individuals and the HPV genotype involved. Life-threatening consequences are not uncommon, and cervical cancer is a clear demonstration of the virus’s potency. While the incidence of cervical cancer is heavily concentrated on developing countries,1 the impact of HPV-related diseases on developed countries has not ceased. In the United States alone, HPV infections are the most common sexually transmitted disease with an estimated 5 million new cases being diagnosed in 2000 among young adults, incurring nearly US$3 billion in terms of direct medical costs.2 A multinational study involving 18,498 women showed that cervical HPV prevalence varied greatly geographically, ranging from the low of 1.6% in North Vietnam to the high of 27% in Nigeria. In general, HPV prevalence peaked among young, sexually active women and declined with age. In selected countries, however, a second peak was noted in women older than 55 years.3 The high prevalence of HPV-related diseases incurs a heavy burden on the healthcare systems of developed and developing countries alike, which renders HPV research and prevention a global public health imperative. On an individual level, the afflictions caused by HPV-related diseases go beyond that of physical suffering to affecting the psychological well-being of the infected. This is the focus of our paper.

Decline in mammographic density greatest during menopause

9 days ago

Age-associated declines in mammographic density (MD), while occurring pre- and postmenopausally, are most pronounced during menopause, a new study reports.

This trend is consistent worldwide and across a wide variety of ethnic and geographical groups suggesting an underlying innate biological mechanism.

Analysis of 11,423 women (35 to 85 years of age) showed that postmenopausal women had lower percent MD (PD; difference, -0.46 cm; 95 percent CI, -0.53 to -0.39) and lower dense area (difference, -0.55 cm; -0.65 to -0.45) compared with premenopausal women of the same age.

On the other hand, nondense area (difference, 0.32 cm; 0.21 to 0.43) was larger in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women of the same age.

In premenopausal women, every 10-year increase in age was associated with decreases in PD (difference, -0.24; -0.34 to -0.14) and dense area (difference, -0.27; -0.41 to -0.14). Changes in PD and dense area were not associated with changes in breast area.

PD (difference, -0.38; -0.44 to -0.33) and dense area (difference, -0.32; -0.39 to -0.24) also decreased in postmenopausal women with every 10-year increase in age. In contrast to premenopausal women, a corresponding increase in breast area (difference, 0.34; 0.24 to 0.39) was observed in postmenopausal women.

While there were variations in the trend when the women were grouped according to reproductive factors (parity and age at first birth), there were no significant variations across the different ethnic groups except for larger decreases in PD in Malay and South Asian women.

Information was retrieved from the International Consortium on Mammographic Density. Participants were free of breast cancer and were categorized as pre- (n=4,534) or postmenopausal (n=6,481). MD was measured using the Cumulus method.

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Most Read Articles
Radha Chitale, one year ago
MSD Pharma (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. has partnered with local cancer and paediatric societies on a campaign to raise awareness about human papilloma virus (HPV) – the most common risk factor for cervical cancer – and the option to get vaccinated.
Smriti Rana, one year ago
Prolonged breastfeeding has a beneficial long term effect on a person’s intelligence quotient (IQ) in adulthood and may be associated with higher levels of education and income potential, a recent study has shown.
3 years ago

Over the past few decades, there has been widespread concern about the increasing proportion of births born by caesarean delivery. The rising rate of primary caesarean section has led to the increased number of obstetric population with a history of prior caesarean delivery. Although this group of women may be offered planned vaginal birth after previous caesarean section (VBAC) or elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS), the VBAC rate is generally low particularly in well-developed countries. In the United States, the VBAC rate has decreased to 8.5% by 2006, while the total caesarean rate has increased to 31.1%.1

Tracy TC Kwan, BSc (Nursing), MPH; Hextan YS Ngan, MBBS, FHKAM (O&G), MD (HK), FRCOG, 3 years ago

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a prevalent disease worldwide. Consequences of HPV infection vary, depending on the infected individuals and the HPV genotype involved. Life-threatening consequences are not uncommon, and cervical cancer is a clear demonstration of the virus’s potency. While the incidence of cervical cancer is heavily concentrated on developing countries,1 the impact of HPV-related diseases on developed countries has not ceased. In the United States alone, HPV infections are the most common sexually transmitted disease with an estimated 5 million new cases being diagnosed in 2000 among young adults, incurring nearly US$3 billion in terms of direct medical costs.2 A multinational study involving 18,498 women showed that cervical HPV prevalence varied greatly geographically, ranging from the low of 1.6% in North Vietnam to the high of 27% in Nigeria. In general, HPV prevalence peaked among young, sexually active women and declined with age. In selected countries, however, a second peak was noted in women older than 55 years.3 The high prevalence of HPV-related diseases incurs a heavy burden on the healthcare systems of developed and developing countries alike, which renders HPV research and prevention a global public health imperative. On an individual level, the afflictions caused by HPV-related diseases go beyond that of physical suffering to affecting the psychological well-being of the infected. This is the focus of our paper.