Most Read Articles
3 years ago

Over the past few decades, there has been widespread concern about the increasing proportion of births born by caesarean delivery. The rising rate of primary caesarean section has led to the increased number of obstetric population with a history of prior caesarean delivery. Although this group of women may be offered planned vaginal birth after previous caesarean section (VBAC) or elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS), the VBAC rate is generally low particularly in well-developed countries. In the United States, the VBAC rate has decreased to 8.5% by 2006, while the total caesarean rate has increased to 31.1%.1

Kavitha G. Shekar, 2 years ago

Doppler measurement of cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) can detect chronic placental insufficiency and failure to reach growth potential (FRGP) in appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) pregnancies. This allows to time delivery of pregnancies, except monochorionic pregnancy, says Dr Tony Tan from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Raffles Hospital, Singapore.

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AXL signalling helps identify mesenchymal subtype ovarian cancer patients

Elaine Soliven
5 months ago
Stratifying ovarian cancer patients with gene expression molecular subtypes (GEMS) enables the identification of AXL in mesenchymal subtype ovarian cancer, according to a study presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Asia 2016 Congress held in Singapore.

“When we utilize gene expression molecular subtypes to stratify ovarian cancer, we can identify AXL and its related signalling network [as] a crucial player specifically in the [mesenchymal] subtype ovarian cancer,” said Dr Ruby Yun-Ju Huang from the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology at National University Hospital in Singapore.

Huang and her team performed a kinome enrichment analysis among GEMS using the Ov1538 ovarian cancer dataset (publicly available gene expression data of 1,538 ovarian cancer datasets). The researchers were able to identify AXL, a receptor tyrosine kinase that has GAS6 ligand. AXL was demonstrated to be the highest ranking kinase with poor prognosis in mesenchymal subtype tumours and cell lines.

AXL signature (AXLsig) consists of the top 30 genes that correlate with AXL that was derived from the gene expression microarray analysis of the Ov1538 dataset. The AXLsig was further correlated with GEMS, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) score, and clinical outcome of Ov1538 dataset.

Using the Ov1538 dataset, the AXLsig was found to be significantly overexpressed in mesenchymal GEMS. High AXLsig was associated with a worse overall survival (OS) with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.26 (p=0.0096) at median cut-off and 1.58 (p=0.003) at lowest and highest quadrants cut-off.

The AXLsig showed a positive correlation with the ovarian-specific EMT score (Rho=+0.4148; p=5.23e–65). “[With a] high AXL score in the tumour, the tumour tends to have high EMT state,” said Huang.

Multivariate analysis was also performed to adjust according to the stage, age and grade of the tumours, which were also considered significant (HR, 1.51; p=0.0012).

“The AXL signalling pathway is also very important during the progression of ovarian cancer patients,” said Huang. The inhibition of AXL signalling will have a profound impact on cell survival particularly in mesenchymal ovarian cancer cells.

“Therefore… if we can stratify ovarian cancer patients based on either the molecular subtype or AXL signalling, we probably can pick-up those subpopulations that would best benefit from AXL inhibition,” said Huang.
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Most Read Articles
3 years ago

Over the past few decades, there has been widespread concern about the increasing proportion of births born by caesarean delivery. The rising rate of primary caesarean section has led to the increased number of obstetric population with a history of prior caesarean delivery. Although this group of women may be offered planned vaginal birth after previous caesarean section (VBAC) or elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS), the VBAC rate is generally low particularly in well-developed countries. In the United States, the VBAC rate has decreased to 8.5% by 2006, while the total caesarean rate has increased to 31.1%.1

Kavitha G. Shekar, 2 years ago

Doppler measurement of cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) can detect chronic placental insufficiency and failure to reach growth potential (FRGP) in appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) pregnancies. This allows to time delivery of pregnancies, except monochorionic pregnancy, says Dr Tony Tan from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Raffles Hospital, Singapore.

2 years ago
As evaluated in a randomised, controlled study on three-year leuprorelin acetate treatment with tamoxifen, it is as safe and effective as two-year therapy in premenopausal, endocrine-responsive breast cancer patients.
2 years ago
Psychiatric symptoms may be correlated with functional impairment in patients with chronic pelvic pain based on a study.