Adiponectin ups risk of proteinuria in lupus
Adiponectin, but not leptin, is significantly correlated with proteinuria and its severity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis, reveals a new cross-sectional study.
In the study cohort of 103 female SLE patients (mean age 43 years), the levels of adiponectin and the adiponectin to body mass index (BMI) ratio were both significantly higher than in the control group (n=83; p<0.001).
In contrast, leptin levels (p=0.09) and leptin to BMI ratio (p=0.08) were only marginally significantly higher in the SLE patients compared with controls.
The SLE patients were further divided into two according to renal activity status: those with (n=30) and those without (n=73) proteinuria.
Both adiponectin levels (20.4 vs 15.6 µg/mL; p=0.02) and adiponectin to BMI ratio (0.8 vs 0.6; p=0.02) were significantly higher in patients with proteinuria than in SLE patients without renal involvement. Again, leptin levels and the leptin to BMI ratio were only marginally higher in those with proteinuria.
Serum adiponectin levels were also significantly correlated with a high degree of proteinuria (p=0.001) and high SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI; p=0.05) and renal-SLEDAI (p=0.002) scores. Serum creatinine (p=0.05) and corticosteroid dose (p=0.03) were also significantly associated with serum adiponectin.
Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of proteinuria in SLE patients was significantly higher in those with higher level of adiponectin (odds ratio, 1.06; 95 percent CI, 1.01 to 1.12; p=0.02). Serum leptin levels did not significantly affect the risk of proteinuria.