Many patients, at some time in their life, may be affected by hives or urticaria, and seek help and treatment at the pharmacy. Check out this module to understand the different subtypes of urticaria and how to alleviate the symptoms with the appropriate treatment.
Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition that changes the life cycle of skin cells. It causes skin cells to multiply and build up rapidly on the surface of the skin, forming thick silvery scales and itchy, dry, red patches that are sometimes painful. The goal of this activity is to improve pharmacists’ knowledge on topical strategies to manage psoriasis
The use of hormones has bought great convenience to a woman’s life, be it for therapeutic use or as a lifestyle drug, ie, contraceptives. However, the duration of hormone use is frequently long, in terms of years. Concerns have been raised about the possibility of a relationship between cancer development and long-term hormonal influence. This article reviews evidence regarding the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and the development of cancer, with the discussion focusing mainly on carcinoma of the breast and female genital tract.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the leading causes of childhood disability. It has been defined as ‘a disorder of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain’.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a controversial subject in obstetrics. It is defined by the National Diabetes Data Group in 1985 as carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.1 The first case report of GDM appeared in 1824, which described a mother with thirst, polyuria and glycosuria and the death of a macrosomic infant from shoulder impaction. Historically, there has been a lot of controversy over most aspects of GDM, including screening, diagnosis, risks, treatment, and the relationship between GDM and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, several major studies have substantially resolved these areas of controversy, eg, the Hyperglycaemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study,2 the Australian Carbohydrate Intolerance Study in Pregnant Women (ACHOIS),3 and the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network treatment of mild gestational diabetes (MFMUN-GDM)4 clinical trials, which will be discussed further in this article.
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the commonest cause of severe early-onset neonatal infection, which is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality (5–10%).1-3 About half of GBS meningitis will be complicated by neurodevelopment impairment. Because the early-onset disease develops shortly and rapidly after birth, there has been little improvement in the disease treatment, and the focus thus lies in disease prevention.
Addition of digoxin to an ACE inhibitor lessens heart failure (HF) hospitalisation in HF patients with reduced ejection fraction, regardless of diabetes status, as presented in an analysis of the Digitalis Investigation Group trial.