The approach in prenatal diagnosis has been revolutionized by advances in prenatal molecular diagnostics. New algorithms in prenatal diagnosis are evolving and becoming increasingly complicated (Figure 1). The goal is to maximize the prenatal information for pregnant women and the families to make choices for the next generations.
Thalassaemia becomes a global health problem. Most women with thalassaemia trait can be picked up by universal prenatal screening for thalassaemia using mean corpuscular volume/haemoglobin, followed by haemoglobin pattern with or without DNA analysis.
The incidence of twins and high-order multiple pregnancies have been increasing over the past decades as a result of the widespread use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). While multiple gestation rates have increased from 1.93% in 1980 to 3.15% in 2003 in the United States, the global coverage seems to be around 30 per 1,000 births in the past decade.1
The main causes of increased perinatal mortality and morbidity in multiple pregnancies as compared to singletons are preterm delivery and low or extremely low birth weight. Even in those infants that survived, the risk of cerebral palsy and other forms of neurological developmental defects was estimated to be around four times that of singleton pregnancies. The incidence of milder forms of neurological or developmental deficits such as educational difficulties or behavioural problems are even more common in these pregnancies.
Menstrual problems are the commonest gynaecological complaint in adolescent females.The most common menstrual problems seen in paediatric and adolescent gynaecology clinic include dysmenorrhoea, heavy menstrual bleeding, oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea.
Preterm birth (PTB) is defined as birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Its incidence ranges from 5 to 12% in developed countries. It is an important cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity and neurodevelopmental impairment in long term.
Infertility is defined as failure to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular unprotected intercourse. It is a significant global problem with a prevalence of approximately 1 in 7 couples.1 Male factor is a common diagnostic category, and as a single factor it accounts for approximately 20% of the infertile couples.2, 3
Pregnancy is a proinflammatory state with activation of endothelial cells while operative delivery and genital tract injury can result in endothelial damage. Venous dilatation and compression of pelvic veins by the gravid uterus encourages venous formation in the lower limbs.
Yu Tse Ka, Philip Pun Ching Ip, Karen Kar Loen Chan, 20160316034350
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women in the world and there were about 528,000 new patients and 266,000 deaths in 2012. In Hong Kong, its crude incidence rate dropped from about 14 per 100,000 women in late 1990s to around 10.5 in early 2010s, and is currently the 9th commonest female cancer. (Table 1a and 1b)1 This phenomenon may be attributed to the implementation of cervical smear screening programme. Nevertheless, it remains as the 8-9th leading cause of female cancer death over the last decade and the crude mortality rate rose from its trough at 3.0 per 100,000 women in 2003 to 4.0 in 2011. From these results it is obvious that cervical cancer still poses a threat to women’s health. This article aims to review the causal relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer and discuss existing methods that prevent HPV from leading to cervical cancer.
MSD Pharma (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. has partnered with local cancer and paediatric societies on a campaign to raise awareness about human papilloma virus (HPV) – the most common risk factor for cervical cancer – and the option to get vaccinated.
Doppler measurement of cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) can detect chronic placental insufficiency and failure to reach growth potential (FRGP) in appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) pregnancies. This allows to time delivery of pregnancies, except monochorionic pregnancy, says Dr Tony Tan from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Raffles Hospital, Singapore.