inflammatory%20bowel%20disease
INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
Inflammatory bowel disease consists of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
Ulcerative colitis is a diffuse mucosal inflammation limited to the colon while Crohn's disease is a patchy, transmural inflammation that occurs in any part of the gastrointestinal tract.
The ileum and colon are the most frequently affected sites.

Introduction

  • Consists of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD)
    • UC: Diffuse mucosal inflammation limited to the colon
    • CD: Patchy, transmural inflammation that can occur in any part of the GI tract
      • Ileum and colon are the most frequently affected sites

Signs and Symptoms

General Symptoms

Depend on the segment of the intestinal tract involved

  • Chronic diarrhea or constipation
  • Abdominal pain and cramps
  • Blood in stool
  • Pain with bowel movement
  • Urgency in bowel movement
  • Tenesmus
  • Reduced appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Growth retardation
  • Primary amenorrhea
  • Night sweats

Clinical Features

Ulcerative Colitis (UC)

  • Cardinal symptoms: Bloody diarrhea, frequent, small volume
  • Associated symptoms: Colicky abdominal pain, tenesmus, urgency

Crohn's Disease (CD)

  • Chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss
  • Abdominal mass, perianal lesions, stomatitis, fissures and fistulas
  • Malaise, fever, anorexia are more common with CD than UC

Risk Factors

Risk Factors

  • Smoking is a risk factor for CD but has a protective factor for UC through unknown mechanism
  • Age - most people are diagnosed between 15 and 35 years
  • UC is more common in men while CD is more frequent in women
  • Family history
  • Recent episodes of infectious gastroenteritis
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Rheumatology digital copy today!
DOWNLOAD
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Elvira Manzano, 4 days ago
Bisphosphonates have proven antifracture efficacy and remain to be the cornerstone of osteoporosis treatment. However, a drug holiday is of particular importance with bisphosphonates due to some signals with long-term use of the drug, including rare incidence of atypical femoral fracture (AFF) and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), says a leading endocrinologist at AFOS 2017.
Yesterday
Breast cancer patients have notably different microbiomes in the local breast tissue and urinary tract, a recent study reveals. Particularly, species in the Methylobacterium genus are reduced in the local breast tissue while the urinary tract is enriched in gram-positive bacteria.
Pearl Toh, 13 Oct 2017
Women with higher plasma tryptophan concentrations were less likely to have poor sleep quality during pregnancy, especially among those with anxiety symptoms, according to the GUSTO* study.
14 Oct 2017
In pregnant women, adherence to recommended dietary intake of fat and fibre is associated with a more beneficial and richer gut microbiota which, in turn, decreases levels of the inflammation marker glycoprotein acetylation (GlycA), a study has shown.