While propensity score (PS) matching yielded no significant difference in the sustained virological response 24 weeks after therapy (SVR24) rates between telaprevir (TPV) with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin (PR) and boceprevir (BOC)/PR, PS matching is still a useful tool for eliminating the bias in nonrandomized studies and assessing treatment efficacy in real world settings, a new study shows.
Administering trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) during pregnancy appears to reduce all-cause acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) hospitalization among neonates during the first 3 months of life, suggesting that the vaccine has a potentially protective effect on subsequent bacterial infections that influenza may predispose infants to.
The vonoprazan-based triple therapy is superior to proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy in terms of Helicobacter pylori eradication, although the two regimens show comparable tolerability and incidence of adverse events, according to a review and meta-analysis.
There appears to be a substantial number of patients with uninfected diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) who will develop an infection prior to healing, with risk factors including initial presentation of a deep ulcer, previous ulcer, peripheral neuropathy, foot deformity, younger age and female sex, according to a study.
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who are treated with corticosteroids, immunosuppressants and biologics have a low risk of pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJP), a population-based cohort study has shown. This suggests that routine administration of PJP prophylaxis in this population may not be warranted.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination demonstrates efficacy against oral HPV infections among young adults, although the low uptake limits the population-level effectiveness of the vaccine, according to a cross-sectional study presented at the 2017 ASCO Annual Meeting in Chicago.
Statins appear to have a dose-dependent association with the risk of tuberculosis (TB), with a nationwide population-based study showing that statin users have 47 percent lower incidence of TB compared with nonusers.
Plasma concentrations of kallistatin is significantly reduced in septic shock patients compared with severe sepsis patients, a new study shows. Moreover, lower kallistatin levels are significantly associated with the risk of death and severe illnesses.
The presence of gout does not appear to reduce the risks of pneumonia, urinary tract infection (UTI) or infection-related mortality in patients when compared with population-based controls, according to a retrospective cohort study.
Peak nasal inspiratory flow is as favourable as formal rhinomanometry as a marker of objective nasal patency but is cheaper, simpler, and more appropriate for serial measurements and home use according to a review.