Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Sporadic cases usually present after >60 year while familial types are rare and present in <60 year of age (early-onset dementia).
Short-term memory loss is the most common early symptom. Other spheres of cognitive impairment manifest after several years.
Anxiety disorders are disorders wherein the patient experiences uncontrollable fear or anxiety with behavioral disturbances that affects normal functioning.
Generalized anxiety disorder is having excessive anxiety and worry occurring for at least 6 months about several events or activities. The person finds it difficult to control the worry.
Panic disorder is when the person experienced recurrent unexpected panic attacks.
Social anxiety disorder is marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny by others.
Symptoms that suggest ADHD includes hyperactivity, acting without thinking, inattention/daydreaming, fidgety, restless, excessive talking, aggressive behavior, academic underachievement, disorganized and has difficulty in completing task.
Bipolar II disorder is usually misdiagnosed. It is characterized by occurence of ≥1 major depressive episodes with at least 1 hypomanic episode.
Cyclothymic disorder or cyclothymia is a mild form of bipolar disorder. Patients have episodes of hypomania alternating with mild depression that lasts for 2 years.
Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients have ≥4 episodes of major depression, mania, hypomania or mixed symptoms within a year.
Depression is a mood disorder wherein the patient have a pervasive sad mood or loss of interest in most activities for at least 2 weeks.
It can cause significant distress & impairment. It is also a chronic, episodic and relapsing syndrome.
Treatment can either be by psychotherapy alone or pharmacotherapy alone or psychotherapy combined with pharmacological therapy.
Insomnia can be either having difficulty in initiating sleep, maintaining sleep or experiencing early morning awakening wherein returning to sleep is not easily attained.
These disturbances can cause significant distress and impairment in daytime functioning.
It is the most prevalent sleep disorder in the general population thus accurate diagnosis and effective treatment is necessary.
Obsession is a recurrent, persistent, intrusive, unwanted thought, image or urge that cause distressing emotions (eg anxiety and disgust).
Compulsion is a repetitive behavior or mental act that the person feels driven to perform, in order to lessen the distress caused by the obsession.
Anxiety is the central feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
It is involuntarily controlled and causes negative personal consequences like distress, frustration and avoidance of sexual intimacy.
Exact etiology and risk factors are unknown.
It results in considerable impairment of the patient's personal functioning that occurs in approximately 5% of women of reproductive age.
Positive or psychotic symptoms are delusions, hallucinations, and distorted perceptions.
Negative symptoms include flat or blunted emotions, lack of motivation or energy, lack of pleasure or interest in things, and limited speech.
Disorganized symptoms are confused thinking, disorganized speech and behavior.
Cognitive symptoms include impairment in attention verbal fluency memory, and executive functioning.
Tourette's syndrome is the most common form of tic disorder.
There is a strong genetic component showing a 10- to 100-fold increase in the rates of tics and Tourette's syndrome among first-degree relatives of Tourette's syndrome patients.
Simple motor tics are restricted to a single or a few muscle groups and last less than a fraction of a second.
Complex motor tics involve larger muscle groups, usually last longer and appear purposeful and goal-directed.