Thalassaemia becomes a global health problem. Most women with thalassaemia trait can be picked up by universal prenatal screening for thalassaemia using mean corpuscular volume/haemoglobin, followed by haemoglobin pattern with or without DNA analysis.
The incidence of twins and high-order multiple pregnancies have been increasing over the past decades as a result of the widespread use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). While multiple gestation rates have increased from 1.93% in 1980 to 3.15% in 2003 in the United States, the global coverage seems to be around 30 per 1,000 births in the past decade.1
The main causes of increased perinatal mortality and morbidity in multiple pregnancies as compared to singletons are preterm delivery and low or extremely low birth weight. Even in those infants that survived, the risk of cerebral palsy and other forms of neurological developmental defects was estimated to be around four times that of singleton pregnancies. The incidence of milder forms of neurological or developmental deficits such as educational difficulties or behavioural problems are even more common in these pregnancies.
Menstrual problems are the commonest gynaecological complaint in adolescent females.The most common menstrual problems seen in paediatric and adolescent gynaecology clinic include dysmenorrhoea, heavy menstrual bleeding, oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea.
Preterm birth (PTB) is defined as birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Its incidence ranges from 5 to 12% in developed countries. It is an important cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity and neurodevelopmental impairment in long term.
Owing to the higher maternal age and more frequent use of assisted reproductive techniques, an increase in twin pregnancy has been observed worldwide.