Bronchiolitis is a clinical diagnosis preceding upper respiratory illness and/or rhinorrhea.
Signs of respiratory illness which may include wheezing, retractions, oxygen desaturation, color change, nasal flaring.
There is also presence of apnea especially in premature or low birthweight infants, signs of dehydration and exposure to persons with viral upper respiratory infections.
Symptoms are usually worst on the 3rd-5th day of illness and then improve gradually.
Allowing for an observation period of between 11 to 25 hours is necessary for assessing the risk of delayed desaturation in hospitalised infants with bronchiolitis, according to a study. This should guide the identification of infants who may be immediately and safely discharged from the emergency department (ED).
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a common technique for alleviating respiratory distress in infants with bronchiolitis. Most studies of CPAP have been conducted in an intensive care setting, but a recent trial assessed the feasibility of using CPAP to treat infants with bronchiolitis in a general paediatric ward.
Asthma is a risk factor for bronchiolitis in pregnancy and since recurrent episodes of bronchiolitis are associated with the development of childhood asthma, optimal management of asthma during pregnancy may affect the risk of developing childhood asthma or even its severity.
Nonoperative management of uncomplicated appendicitis in children entails an increased likelihood of repeat emergency department visits and hospitalizations compared with appendectomy, a retrospective study has found. Furthermore, close to half of those who receive nonoperative care require subsequent surgical removal of the appendix within the first year.
Hypersensitivity reaction to food is becoming more common. Without a basic understanding and strict use of the various terminologies used to describe these hypersensitivity reactions, healthcare professionals face an uphill task to optimizing patient care in those who are susceptible.
Pure oats can be safely included in the gluten-free diet (GFD) of children with coeliac disease, concluded researchers at the recent European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) annual meeting held in Athens, Greece.